Literature



The following articles provide further information about the generation and use of different types of visualizations of the accuracy of old maps and the computation of statistical measures. This list has not been updated for a while.

There is another page with articles about MapAnalyst and applications of MapAnalyst for the analysis of old maps.



Andrews, J. H. (1974). The Maps of the Escheated Counties of Ulster, 1609-1610. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 74, C, 149.

Andrews, J. H. (1975). The purposes of cartometric anaysis of old maps. 6th International Conference on the History of Cartography, Greenwich.

Angerer, B. (1996). Die Frankenlandkarte nach S. A. Rotenhan aus dem Ortelius-Atlas und ihre Genauigkeit. Lehrstuhl für Kartographie und Reproduktionstechnik. München, Technische Universität.

Badariotti, D. (1987). Les cartes anciennes de France du XVI° au XVIII° siècle : une approche quantitative des cartes anciennes. ULP / UFR de Géographie. Strasbourg. Mémoire de Maîtrise: Vol. 1 169 p., Vol. 2 59 p. .

Badariotti, D. (1989). Histoire de la cartographie. Une approche quantitative. Mappemonde 89(4): 42-45.

Balletti, C. (2000). Analytical and quantitative methods for the analysis of the geometrical content of historical cartography. International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 33(Part B5): 30-37.

Balletti, C. and C. Boutoura (2001). Revisiting the projective properties of historic nautical maps of the mediterranean and the aegean. 20th International Cartographic Conference ICC 2001, Beijing.

Balletti, C., F. Guerra, et al. (2000). Venice: New life in an old map. GEOInformatics Oct/Nov.

Balletti, C. (2006) Georeference in the analysis of the geometric content of early maps. e-Perimetron 1(1):  32-42.

Beineke, D. (2001). Verfahren zur Genauigkeitsanalyse für Altkarten. Studiengang Geodäsie und Geoinformation. München, Universität der Bundeswehr.

Beineke, D. (2007). Zur Bestimmung lokaler Abbildungsverzerrungen in Altkarten mit Hilfe der multiquadratischen Interpolationsmethode. Allgemeine Vermessungsnachrichten, 1/2007, p. 19-27.

Beineke, D. and K. Brunner (1996). Genauigkeitsuntersuchungen zur Schlesienkarte von Martin Helwig aus dem Jahre 1561. Martin Helwigs Karte von Schlesien aus dem Jahre 1561. K. Brunner and H. Musall. Karlsruhe, Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. Reihe C: 9.

Blakemore, M. J. and J. B. Harley (1980). Concepts in the history of cartography. A review and perspective. Cartographica 17(4): 1-120.

Bönisch, F. (1967). The geometrical accuracy of 16th and 17th century topographical surveys. Imago Mundi 21: 62-69.

Boutoura, C. and E. Livieratos (1986). Strain analysis for geometric comparisons of maps. The Cartographic Journal 23: 27-34.

Boutoura, C. (2006) Assigning map projections to portolan maps. e-Perimetron 1(1): 40-50.

Boutoura, C. and E. Livieratos (2006). Some fundamentals for the study of the geometry of early maps by comparative methods. e-Perimetron 1(1): 60-70.

Bretterbauer, K. (1993). Zur Genauigkeitsbeurteilung alter Karten. Cartographica Helvetica 8: 47-49.

Bretterbauer, K. (2005). Zur Konstruktion von Verzerrungslinien mittels der multiquadratischen Methode von Hardy. Kartographische Nachrichten 2: 83-85.

Cauvin, C. (1998). Des transformations cartographiques. Mappemonde 98(1): 12-15.

Depuydt, F. and L. Decruynaere (2001). De Vlaanderen-kaarten van Mercator en Ortelius: In welke mate zijn ze metrisch nauwkeurig? Caert-Thresoor 20(1): 13-19.

Depuydt, F. and J. Theelen (2000). De metrische nauwkeurigheid van oude kaarten. Kartografisch Tijdschrift 16(4): 7-13.

Dias, M. H., C. Cauvin, et al. (2000). Comparacao de configuracoes cartograficas atraves da regressao bidimensional. Finisterra 35(69): 95-107.

Finsterwalder, R. (1988). Massstab und Genauigkeit alter Karten – gezeigt an einigen Kartierungen Bayerns. Cartographia Bavariae – Bayern im Bild der Karte. H. Wolff. Weissenhorn, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Anton H. Konrad Verlag: 193-211.

Forstner, G. (1998). Zwei Konstruktionsmethoden von Verzerrungsgittern zur Untersuchung alter Karten. Cartographica Helvetica 18: 33-40.

Forstner, G. and M. Oehrli (1998). Graphische Darstellungen der Untersuchungsergebnisse alter Karten und die Entwicklung der Verzerrungsgitter. Cartographica Helvetica 17: 35-43.

Fuse, T., E. Shimizu, et al. (1998). A study on geometric correction of historical maps. International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 32(5): 543-548.

Ginzburg, G. (1935). A practical method of determining distortion on maps. Geodezist 10: 49-57.

Giordano, A. and Nolan, T. (2007). Civil War Maps of the Battle of Stones River: History and the Modern Landscape. The Cartographic Journal, 44(1):55-70.

Guerra, F. (2000). 2W: New technologies for the georeferenced visualisation of historic cartography. International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 33(Part B5): 339-346.

Harley, J. B. (1968). The evaluation of early maps: towards a methodology. Imago Mundi 22: 10-12.

Hessler, J. (2005). Warping Waldseemüller: A Cartometric Study of the Coast of South America As Portrayed on the 1507 World Map, ser. A, no. 4, August 29, 2005. Coordinates. Online Journal of the Map and Geography Table, American Library Association.

Hooke, J. and R. A. Perry (1976). The planimetric accuracy of Tithe maps. Cartographic Journal 13: 177-183.

Hu, B. (2001). Assessing the Accuracy of The Map of the Prefectural Capital of 1261 Using Geographic Information Systems'. The Professional Geographer, 53(1), 32-44.

Imhof, E. (1945). Herstellung, Genauigkeit und Form der alten Schweizerkarten. Die Schweiz auf alten Karten. L. Weisz. Zürich.

Imhof, E. (1964). Beiträge zur Geschichte der topographischen Kartographie. International Yearbook of Cartography. E. Imhof. Gütersloh, Bertelsmann. 4.

Jenny, B. (2006). MapAnalyst - A digital tool for the analysis of the planimetric accuracy of historical maps. e-Perimetron, 1- 3, p. 239-245. Online at www.e-perimetron.org.

Jenny, B., Weber, A., and L. Hurni (2007) Visualising the planimetric accuracy of historical maps with MapAnalyst. Cartographica, 42-1, p. 89-94.

Krengel, M. (1997). Methoden der Genauigkeitsuntersuchung von Altkarten am Beispiel der Berlin-Blätter des Schulenburg-Schmettauschen Kartenwerkes. Institut für Geographische Wissenschaften, Fachrichtung Kartographie. Berlin, Freie Universität. Master Degree: 52.

Laxton, P. (1976). The Geodetic and Topographical Evaluation of English County Maps, 1740-1840. The Cartographic Journal 13(1): 37-54.

Lilley, K. D., Lloyd, C. D. and Campbell, B. M. S. (2009). Mapping the Realm: A New Look at the Gough Map of Britain (c.1360). Imago Mundi,61(1):1–28.

Lindsay, J. M. (1980). The Assessment of Transient Patterns on Historic Maps - A Case Study. The Cartographic Journal, 17(1):16-20.

Livieratos, E., M. Valsamaki, et al. (1995). Cartometric analysis of Ptolemy's maps of Greece. 16. Internationale Konferenz zur Geschichte der Kartographie, Vienna.

Livieratos, E. (2006). On the study of the geometric properties of historical cartographic representations. Cartographica, 41-2: 165-175.

Livieratos, E. (2006). Graticule versus point positioning in Ptolemy cartographies. e-Perimetron 1(1): 51-59.

Livieratos, E. (2006). The use of animation in visualising deformations of a portolan-type map. e-Perimetron 1(1): 71-76.

Lloyd, C. and Lilley, K. (2009) Cartographic veracity in medieval mapping: Analyzing geographical variation in the Gough Map of Great Britain. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 99–1, p. 27-48.

Locke, W. W. and Wyckoff, W. K. (1993). A Method for Assessing the Planimetric Accuracy of Historical Maps: The Case of the Colorado-Green River System. The Professional Geographer, 45(4):416-424.

Loomer, S. A. (1986). Mathematical analysis of medieval sea charts. ACSM-ASPRS Convention 1986. Cartography and education, Washington, D.C., ACSM & ASPRS.

Loomer, S. A. (1987). A cartometric analysis of Portolan Charts: A search for methodology. Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin-Madison: 235.

Margary, H. (1977). A proposed photographic method of assessing the accuracy of old maps. Imago Mundi 29: 79.

Mayr, F. (1970). Verzerrungsgitter des Tirol-Ausschnittes der Cusanus-Martellus-Karte und Deutung des Karteninhalts. Cusanus Gedächtnisschrift. N. Grass. München, Universitätsverlag Wagner.

Mcilwraith, T. F. (1972). Measures of displacement and distortion in early maps. 22nd International Geographical Congress, Montreal, University of Toronto Press.

Mekenkamp, P. G. M. (1989). Geometric cartography: the accuracy of old maps. 13th International Conference on the History of Cartography, Amsterdam and The Hague.

Mekenkamp, P. G. M. (1990). Die Entwicklung einer neuen Methode für die Bestimmung der Genauigkeit von alten Karten. 5. Kartographiehistorisches Colloquium 1990, Oldenburg, Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin.

Mekenkamp, P. G. M. and O. Koop (1986). Nauwkeurigheids-analyse van oude kaarten met behulp van de computer. Caert-Thresoor(3): 45-52.

Mekenkamp, P. G. M. and O. Koop (1986). Een nieuwe computergestuurde methode voor auwkeurigheidsanalyses van oude kaarten. Geodesia - Nederlands geodetisch tijdschrift 28(5): 171-175.

Mesenburg, P. (1986). Rechnergestützte Analyse zum kartographischen und geodätischen Informationsgehalt von Portolankarten. Kartographiehistorisches Colloquium 1986, Wien, Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin.

Mesenburg, P. (1988). Untersuchungen zur geometrischen Struktur und zur Genese der Portolankarte des Petrus Roselli aus dem Jahre 1449. 4. Kartographiehistorisches Colloquium 1988, Karlsruhe, Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin.

Mesenburg, P. (1990). Untersuchungen zur kartometrischen Auswertung mittelalterlicher Portolane. Kartographische Nachrichten 1: 9-18.

Mesenburg, P. (1994). Portolankarten. Gutenberg und die neue Welt. H. Wenzel. München, Wilhelm Fink Verlag: 59-75.

Mesenburg, P. (1994). Germaniae Universalis – Die Genauigkeit der Darstellung Europas durch Gerhard Mercator im Jahre 1585. Gerhard Mercator Europa und die Welt. R. Löffler and G. Tromnau, Stadt Duisburg.

Mesenburg, P. (2001). Kartometrische Untersuchung und Rekonstruktion der Weltkarte des Piri Re'is (1513). Cartographica Helvetica 24: 3-7.

Murphy, J. (1979). Measures of Map Accuracy Assessment and Some Early Ulster Maps. Irish Geography, 11:88-101.

Niederöst, J., 2001: 3D Reconstruction and Accuracy Analysis of Historical Relief Models (resume). Proceedings of the 3rd International Seminar on New Development in Digital Photogrammetry, Gifu, Japan, pp. 34-37.

Niederöst, J., 2002: Landscape as a Historical Object: 3D-Reconstruction and Evaluation of a Relief Model from the 18th Century. International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXIV, Part 5/W3. Presented at International Workshop on Visualization and Animation of Landscape, Kunming, China.

Niederöst, J., 2003: A birds's eye view on Switzerland in the 18th century: 3D reconstruction and analysis of a historical relief model. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XXXIV-5/C15, ISSN 1682-1750, S. 589-594. Presented at CIPA conference in Antalya, Turkey.

Niederöst, J., 2004: Image analysis for the history of cartography: Drawing conclusions from the evaluation of Pfyffer's Relief. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XXXV, Part B5, Commission V, S. 389-394. Presented at XXth ISPRS Congress in Istanbul, Turkey.

Niederöst, J. (2005). Das Relief der Urschweiz von Franz Ludwig Pfyffer (1716-1802): 3D-Rekonstruktion, Analyse und Interpretation. Institut für Geodäsie und Photogrammetrie. ETH Zürich. Dissertation.

Pápay, G. (1988). Aufnahmemethodik und Kartierungsgenauigkeit der ersten Karte Mecklenburgs von Tilemann Stella (1525-1589) aus dem Jahre 1552 und sein Plan zur Kartierung der deutschen Länder. Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 132(3): 209-216.

Pápay, G. (1996). Methoden der graphischen Datenverarbeitung, der Computerkartographie und der Geo-Informationssysteme in der historischen Kartographie und der historischen Geographie. 8. Kartographiehistorisches Colloquium, Bern, Cartographica Helvetica.

Pearson, B. C. (2001). Assessing the Accuracy of the Confederate Military Maps of Jedediah Hotchkiss. Proceedings of the 20th International Cartographic Conference, Beijing, China, 1: 303-308.

Pearson, B. C. (2005). Comparative Accuracy in Four Civil War Maps of the Shenandoah Valley: A GIS Analysis. The Professional Geographer 57(3): 376-394.

Pulsipher, L. M. (1987). Assessing the Usefulness of a Cartographic Curiosity: The 1673 Map of a Sugar Island. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 77(3):408-422.

Ravenhill, W. and A. Gilg (1974). The accuracy of early maps? Towards a computer aided method. Cartographic Journal 11(1): 48-52.

Rumsey, D. and M. Williams (2002). Historical maps in GIS. Past time, past place. GIS for history. A. K. Knowles, ESRI Press: 1-18.

Shimizu, E. (2002). Making better use of historical maps in GIS – Reproduction of landscape of Edo City. ARIDA News Letter 21.

Shimizu, E., T. Fuse, et al. (1999). Development of GIS integrated historical map analysis system. International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 32(5-3W12): 79-84.

Smith, S., Clement, C., and Wise, S. (2003). GPS, GIS, and the Civil War Battlefield Landscape: A South Carolina Low Country Example. Historical Archaeology, 37(3):14-30.

Steger, E. (1896). Untersuchungen über italienische Seekarten des Mittelalters auf Grund der kartometrischen Methode. Göttingen.

Steiner, C. (1994). Genauigkeitsanalyse des Atlas Tyrolensis. Vienna, TU Wien: 123 + 13

Stochdorph, O. (1984). Rechnergestützte Ermittlung von Kartenmassstäben. Kartographiehistorisches Colloquium, Lüngeburg, Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin.

Stochdorph, O. (1985). Computer-aided distortion analysis of old maps. 11th International Conference on the History of Cartography / 11ème Congrès International sur l'Histoire de la Cartographie, Ottawa.

Stone, J. C. (1993). The influence of copper-plate engraving on map content and accuracy: preparation of the seventeenth-century Blaeu atlas of Scotland. Cartographic Journal 30(1): 3-12.

Stone, J. C. and A. M. D. Gemmell (1977). An experiment in the comparative analysis of distortion on historical maps. The Cartographic Journal 14(1): 7-11.

Strang, A. (1998). The Analysis of Ptolemy's Geography. The Cartographic Journal 35(1): 27-47.

Tissot, A. (1881). Mémoire sur la représentation des surfaces et les projections géographiques. Paris.

Tobler, W. R. (1965). Computation of the correspondence of geographical patterns. The Regional Science Association. Papers. M. D. Thomas and U. o. Washington.

Tobler, W. R. (1966). Medieval distortions: The projections of ancient maps. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 56(2).

Tobler, W. R. (1994). Bidimensional Regression. Geographical Analysis 26(3): 187-212.

Wagner, H. (1895). Das Rätsel der Kompaßkarten im Lichte der Gesamtentwicklung der Seekarten. Verhandlungen des elften Deutschen Geographentages zu Bremen am 7., 8. und 9. April 1895, Bremen, Georg Kollm. Berlin, 1896. Reprinted in: Das rechte Fundament der Seefahrt. Deutsche Beiträge zur Geschichte der Navigation. Edited by W. Köberer, Hamburg, 1982, p. 8-34 and 302-303.

Waterman, S. and D. Gordon (1984). A quantitative-comparative approach to analysis of distortion in mental maps. Professional Geographer 36(3): 326-337.

Weis, I. (1985). Automatische Erstellung von Verzerrungsgittern alter Karten. Lehrstuhl für Kartographie und Reproduktionstechnik. München, Technische Universität: 66.

Yerci, M. (1989). The Accuracy of the First World Map Drawn by Piri Reis. The Cartographic Journal, 26:154-155.



Thanks to Alberto Giordano for indicating a few references.